RIBOXXOL negative control
1 x dsRNA of 30 bp as a negative control for RIBOXXOL
Characteristics: dsRNA duplex, 19.4 KDa, 30 bp in length
Amount: 500 µg or 1 mg
Base composition: cytosines, inosines, guanosines
Purification: RP/IEX, HPLC
Quality Control: PAGE
RIBOXXOL negative control is a synthetic double stranded RNA (dsRNA). It has a defined length of 30 bp. It is composed of cytosines, inosines and guanosines.
Double stranded RNA with a length of at least 45 bp is a potent activator of innate immunity. In the context of innate immunity, dsRNA is a pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP) that activates innate immune response through pathogen recognition receptors (PRR). The PRR of RIBOXXOL is Toll-like-receptor 3 (TLR3).
TLR3 is present in the endosome of myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) and Natural Killer cells . Signaling of TLR3 is triggered by dsRNA with a length of more than 45 bp [2,3].
Triggering the TLR3-pathway through dsRNA induces IL-1ß, 1L-12 and type I IFNs production, improves cross-presentation of antigens and MHC class I expression.
RIBOXXOL promotes Th1 (cellular) immune response, production of IFN-y by NK cells, and activates monocytes.
RIBOXXOL negative control is 30 bp and hence does not allow dimerization of TLR3 monomers, hence no activation of immune cells through TLR3 ligation.
1. Gay, N.J., et al., 2006. Toll-like receptors as molecular switches. Nat Rev Immunol 6, 693-8.
2. Jelinek, I., et al., 2011. TLR3-specific double-stranded RNA oligonucleotide adjuvants induce dendritic cell cross-presentation, CTL responses, and antiviral protection. J Immunol 186, 2422-9.
3. Leonard, J.N., et al., 2008. The TLR3 signaling complex forms by cooperative receptor dimerization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105, 258-63.