1 x potent TLR3 ligand for activation of immune cells

Characteristics: dsRNA duplex, 34.5 KDa, 50 bp in length
Amount: 500 µg or 1 mg
Base composition: cytosines, inosines, guanosines
Purification: RP/IEX, HPLC
Quality Control: PAGE
Delivery: dried

RIBOXXOL is a synthetic double stranded RNA (dsRNA). It has a length of 50 bp. It is composed of cytosines, inosines and guanosines.

Double stranded RNA is a potent activator of innate immunity. In the context of innate immunity, dsRNA is a pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP) that activates innate immune response through pathogen recognition receptors (PRR). The PRR of RIBOXXOL is Toll-like-receptor 3 (TLR3).
TLR3 is present in the endosome of myeloid dendritic cells (DCs) and Natural Killer cells [1]. Signaling of TLR3 is triggered by dsRNA with a length of more than 45 bp [2,3].
Triggering the TLR3-pathway through dsRNA induces IL-1ß, 1L-12 and type I IFNs production, improves cross-presentation of antigens and MHC class I expression.
RIBOXXOL promotes Th1 (cellular) immune response, production of IFN-y by NK cells, and  activates monocytes.

In animal models, RIBOXXOL enhances the adaptive immune response of peptide-based vaccines (in applications such as cancer, hepatitis), induces tumor specific T cell responses and high levels of cytokines (Th1). Moreover, RIBOXXOL displays a resistance to serum and body fluids. It is therefore ideal for experimental set-up in cell culture supplemented with Fetal Calf Serum (FCS) and in small animal models.


1. Gay, N.J., et al., 2006. Toll-like receptors as molecular switches. Nat Rev Immunol 6, 693-8.
2. Jelinek, I., et al., 2011. TLR3-specific double-stranded RNA oligonucleotide adjuvants induce dendritic cell cross-presentation, CTL responses, and antiviral protection. J Immunol 186, 2422-9.
3. Leonard, J.N., et al., 2008. The TLR3 signaling complex forms by cooperative receptor dimerization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105, 258-63.

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